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PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)

Another method used in biotechnology is the PCR. This technique is also used in DNA fingerprinting for identification purposes. 

The advantage in using this technique is that you need a very small amount of the sample in question.  After the DNA is amplified, millions of copies of a piece of the DNA is made. The disadvantage is that the amplified product may be contaminated with other samples not related to the one under question. The procedure has to be done with the utmost care as not to contaminate the sample.

Nucleotides: molecules that are made up of a base, a sugar molecule and a phosphate group. The gene is  stored as a code made up of the four nucleotides (A,C,G,T) running along the length of each strand and joined together in pairs.

Primers: are small pieces of DNA. They are usually made up of 15 to 30 bases.  a primer binds the DNA at a specific region.

Anneal: After heating the DNA to separate the strands, the DNA is allowed to cool slowly to bind to the primers.

Enzyme: a protein that has a specific function.

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